Increase awareness of military women leaders


The following presentation is a continuation series that identifies a social change designed to increase awareness of military women leaders and their transferable leadership styles. Understanding change dynamics requires competency with literature on change. The following discussion begins with part one – change theories in psychology and a review of the evidence for change.

Psychological change theory

Landmark research dating back into the 1970s serves as the foundational explanation of social identity theory (Tajfel, 1979), that offers insight on how a person identifies with a group, as an essential element of how they perceive themselves. Group membership is an extension of identity and becomes social identity. In tandem, Hogg’s historical work on a social theory of leadership focuses on group processes (Hogg, 2001) that also lay the foundation for this discussion. Both theories taken together serve as the framework to understanding how society can change the perception of military leadership to include women. The individual and group levels of change are the starting points for change in society.

Group membership in the military allows a level of social identity. The shared values of various groups in the military create leaders who instill these values. For the U.S. Air Force, the core values are integrity first, service before self, and excellence in all we do (U.S. Air Force, n.d.). For the U.S. Army, the core values are loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, and personal courage (U.S. Army, n.d.). For the U.S. Coast Guard, the core values are honor, respect, and devotion to duty (U.S. Coast Guard, n.d.). For the U.S. Marine Corp, the core values are honor, courage, commitment and semper fidelis is the motto that binds the group (U.S. Marine Corps, n.d.). For the U.S. Navy, the core values are honor, courage, and commitment (U.S. Navy, n.d.).

Reviewing the core values for the various groups of military personnel highlights norms of honor, courage, commitment, and devotion to duty. These values are important elements of group formation in military leadership. Women who retire from the military represent a minimum of 20 years leading others from the values paradigm. Social identity theory and social identity theory of leadership are best to understand societal change toward women military leadership because the underpinnings of both theories rest on groups being social constructs. The next section presents a review and analysis of evidence for change.

Review and analysis of evidence for change

Changes in society often take place because of some act or event. For example, legislation that allows women to serve in combat has sparked a social change in the consciousness of military leadership (Dvorak, 2013; Fishel, 2013; Wasikowska, 2012). The shift is real and measurable (Blanton, 2013), at the same time; the shift is a paradox when compared to images of military leadership. One paradox stems from recent military psychology literature that asserts specific traits and skill for effective military leadership that are gender neutral (Hannah, Jennings, & Nobel, 2010; Laurence, 2011), yet images portrayed in movies on military leadership depict men. The demonstration of confidence in women military leaders is evident by the passage of laws that allow women in combat. The crux of this discussion is to argue that society has shown openness to women as military leaders and the need for media to follow.

The power of imagery in change processes is not a new phenomenon. Psychology scholars have a history demonstrating a strong connection between change and imagery (Hirsch, Clark, & Mathews, 2006; Hirsch, Clark, & Mathews, 2007; Holmes, Mathews, Dalgleish, & Mackintosh, 2006). Movies are a major influence of social norms. For example, military movies depicting people in combat situations rarely show women in leadership, such as Jarhead produced in 2005 about a former Marine’s pre-Desert Storm experiences in Saudi Arabia and experiences fighting in Kuwait (Wick & Fisher, 2005). In 2001, Black Hawk Down was released, which told the story of 123 elite U.S. soldiers drop into Somalia to capture two top lieutenants of a renegade warlord and find themselves in a desperate battle with a large force of heavily-armed Somalis (Bruckheimer & Scott, 2001).

An extensive search for military movies that display women in combat leadership roles as the heroin resulted in the movie, Courage Under Fire, released in 1996, based loosely on an investigation to award a woman the Medal of Honor posthumously. The film shows courage, bravery, and leadership during a nighttime attack on a Black Hawk that was shot down (Davis, Singer, & Friendly, 1996). The historical account provides details that the female officer was not in a combat situation, but Dr. Mary Edwards Walker was awarded the Medal of Honor.

Media in the newspaper has given attention to images of military women because of the shift toward women in combat. As presented earlier, imagery is an important aspect of social awareness. Fox News (Blanton, 2013; Fishel, 2013) and The New York Times (Wasikowska, 2012) bring a social awareness to women in combat. In contrast, The Washington Post (Dvorak, 2013) shifts the focus to recognizing that women have already been fighting and dying in the military. Yet movies portraying military stories within the last ten years do not reflect women in action (Bruckheimer & Scott, 2001; Wick & Fisher, 2005). Gender representation is not the focus of this presentation; the focus is to show evidence that media portrayal of women military leaders’ influences societal change.

Scholarly discussions on military leadership, as mentioned earlier, tend to focus on necessary skills needed for military leaders. According to Hannah, Jennings, and Nobel (2010), leadership is an “inherently social process” that combines social identity and metacognition skills developing within military experience (p. 414). Skill sets necessary for the tactical military leader includes knowledge structures about the military environment, adaptability in quickly changing situations, and metacognitive skills, all of which are gender neutral. By comparison, Bartone (2006) focuses on resilience that military leaders show when dealing with environmental changes. The essence of Bartone’s research is the belief that effective military leaders can transfer resilient responses to stress to the troops.

A review and analysis of evidence supporting imagery as a vehicle for societal change is the essence of the paper. Scholarly literature on women in combat is sparse consequently there is more reliance on media’s version supporting news reports of societal changes that highlight women in combat roles. Highlighting a few essential skills of effective military leaders conveys how those skills are inherent with being a military leader. There is no relation between gender and effective military leadership; therefore, changing the mental mindscape of what a military leader looks like is paramount. A discussion on what needs to take place to implement societal change follows.

Please follow me for the next in this series when speculation of what needs to take place to implement societal change is presented.

Contact me for a complete list of references.

Until tomorrow,

Dr. Scena

Posted in critical analysis, female military leaders, leadership, leadership skills of military women, military leadership transferred, Research | Leave a comment

How women transfer leadership skills gained from military service

The next series involves a critical analysis of how retired military women transfer leadership skills into the next phase of their lives. For women who have retired from military service, headlines are scare with respect to psychological needs for this population. With the rise in social awareness concerning women in combat, more research is needed to understand the application of leadership gained from military experiences among retired women.

Leading from experience

Leading from experience

The information presented in this series is from my own original research. Psychology research is available with respect to women suffering from sexual trauma, gender bias, sexuality, intimate partner violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder with little or no research with a focus on what happens with the leadership skills of military women when they reintegrate into life as a civilian.

Approximately 200,000 women are serving on active duty. As the number of women who retire from military service continues to grow, influences on their leadership styles carry into their new roles. The heart of this series reviews 15 articles related to the topic of leadership in general, women’s leadership, and military leadership. Today, I will address leadership from a general psychology perspective.

General review of psychology of leadership

From the social psychologist perspective, Wang and Thompson (2006) postulate that psychology literature on leadership and group dynamics focus heavily on the negative side or failures of leadership using a meta-analytic approach. The central argument reflects the perspective that a more balanced representation of psychology leadership literature is necessary to highlight the availability of positive research on leadership. By comparison, the psychology therapist perspective of Schoo (2008) provided an argument for the integration of emotional intelligence (EI) and choice theory (CT) with respect to positive psychology applications in organizations also using a meta-analytical approach. The central argument is that leaders who use EI and CT can focus on internal control psychology through their leadership styles.

Revisiting the social psychology view, Eagly (2007) wrote a sound argument, appealing to logic with respect to desirable leadership traits that woman leader’s display using a meta-analytical approach. The article continues from a previous meta-analysis, conducted by Eagly in 2003 that synthesized 45 articles on transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. The central theme makes the argument that professional literature on leadership provides insight into characteristics of good leadership that women do display, yet evidence shows a preference for male leaders over women. In tandem is the general psychology perspective where Chin (2010) advances the argument that based on the United States increased diversity population projections, theories of leadership need to change to include diversity leadership using a persuasive argument.

Continuing from the general psychology perspective, Chin & Sanchez-Hucles (2007) advance the position that scholarly literature on leadership does little to incorporate minorities and diversity. The central focus hinges on increased projections among racial and ethnic minorities’ frames the position that psychologists need to have current and inclusive research available through professional journals in psychology. All three scholarly works have the central theme of advancing the need for critical analysis of psychology literature’s absence of women leadership styles and diversity in the academic landscape. These presentations could have been stronger if recent research studies were the basis, but instead the materials relied heavily on crafting discussions that failed to present alternative views.

The panoramic review of literature on psychology of leadership for women lacks a focus on military women who have completed their tour of duty and retired. Selective arguments on the need to balance both positive and negative leadership practices (Wang & Thompson, 2006), and integration of emotional intelligence and choice theory (Schoo, 2008) provide a conceptual approach to leadership. Arguments on the contradictions between desirable leadership traits are, and the perspective that women have these traits, yet are not viewed as potential leaders (Eagly, 2007), and the need for inclusion of ethnicity and diversity into the scholarly landscape on leadership (Chin, 2010; Chin & Sanchez-Hucles, 2007) broadened the implications that women need inclusion into literature on leadership in psychology. With respect to retired women military leaders, there is a gap in the literature on the effects of emotional intelligence (EI) and choice theory (CT) as well as psychology leadership, therefore the call for more research goes out to increase contextual awareness for this underrepresented population of female veterans.

Until tomorrow,

Dr. Scena Webb


Chin, J. L. (2010). Introduction to the special issue on diversity and leadership. American Psychologist, 65(3), 150-156.
Chin, J. L., & Sanchez,-Hucles, J. J. (2007). Diversity and leadership. American Psychologist, 62(6), 608-609.
Eagly, A. H. (2007). Female leadership advantage and disadvantage: Resolving the contradictions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31(1), 1-12.
Schoo, A. (2008). Leaders and their teams: Learning to improve performance with emotional intelligence and using choice theory. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 27(2), 40-45.
Wang, C. S., & Thompson, L. L. (2006). The negative and positive psychology of leadership and group research. Social Psychology of the Workplace Advances in Group Processes, 23, 31–36

Posted in female military leaders, leadership skills of military women, military leadership transferred | 1 Comment

Living a life of fulfillment



Sharing our passion and goals forward is the essence of this discussion.  We aspire to achieve goals we set in life, whether those goals are personal or professional.  At times, we may attribute the successfulness of achieving those goals to outside influences.  One perspective is that all the stars have to align so that we can move in our destiny.  I invite a different perspective.  I invite the conversation that every step we take is movement toward our destiny that has both external and internal influences.  For example, the desire to do a good job is different than moving into action towards doing a good job.  Movement towards living a life of fulfillment is how we may achieve that goal.

We have to make a deliberate effort to move, move our bodies toward our goals, such as attending a networking event.  Moving our minds toward our goals, such as reading a news article, journal article, or blog on that particular goal.  Movement toward our goals such as speaking our milestones into existence.  Sharing with others where we are headed.  Internal and external events help us move into living a life of fulfillment.

Until tomorrow,

Dr. Scena

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New beginnings for the New Year

New bud on an aloe plant

New bud on an aloe plant

As we celebrate the end of 2013, I find it appropriate to celebrate the beginning of 2014. New business ventures, new creative ideas, new market place strategies. The month of January is our planning season here at Celebrate Incorporated. We strive to forecast ways to introduce new ideas.

The photo in this segment was taken a few years ago in Yuma, Arizona. I was trying to capture the new buds on one of my aloe plants. The buds reminded me of the need to push through the rain and push through the other plantings to give birth to newness.

I am beginning a new segment offering reviews on articles that focus on new beginnings in psychology. As many of you know, I am completing my second masters, this one in psychology to round out my professional academic career. Many areas of psychology interest me, but I have chosen for my focus to review some literature that has the goal to uplift those wanting to engage in new beginnings.

Please watch out for these reviews and please, please give me your feedback.


Dr. Scena

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Benefits of practicing “Mindfulness”

Today begins a series on the benefits of mindfulness.  Borrowing from a 2011 study on mindfulness, Mindfulness is most commonly conceptualized as involving two key components: (1) intentional regulation of attention to and awareness of the present moment, and (2) nonjudgmental acceptance of the ongoing flow of sensations, thoughts, and/or emotional states (Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006; Bishop et al., 2004).



This Yuma, Arizona sunset reminds me of mindfulness in that the being present in the moment requires a deliberate effort to deal with the now.  An example of mindfulness is when talking with a person, being in the present moment, capturing every sensation that is expressed.  There is no attempt to formulate a response to anything, but simply a surrender of sorts to the present moment.

The series I am beginning will review some elements of mindfulness and offer ways we can engage in the practice of being mindful.  One immediate benefit of mindfulness comes when we suspend our judgment of “what comes next” in a conversation.  For example, today I met a very powerful entrepreneur who shared with me her vision for a new business venture.  I remember her ideas and vision for the future company, but what I remember most about our exchange today is her passion, her energy, and her position of power to understand and know that she is a woman of excellence.




The photo above comes to mind when I reflect on the exchange of ideas and synergy with her.  I am excited for her success.  I was absolutely in the moment with her today.  I did not take any phone calls.  I did not even have my cell phone in sight, it was in my purse intentionally, because I wanted to engage in mindfulness.  I did not think about what I had to do next, what I was missing, or what anyone else needed.  I was in the moment with her, enjoying her knowledge of running a small business, and of her vision of the new business venture.

Lastly, let’s remember that practicing mindfulness takes practice.  If we try being in the moment in small increments, there are enormous benefits.  Next week I will discuss, in detail, some of the benefits of mindfulness.

Until next time,

Dr. Scena




Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45. doi:10.1177/1073191105283504
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M. A., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J.,…
Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241. doi:10.1093/clipsy/bph077


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Reflection in leadership

Image retrieved from Google Images

Image retrieved from Google Images

Any discussion on a leadership plan should begin with an operational definition of leadership. Rost (1991) offers this definition for leadership: “an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes” (p.102) as cited in Pinheiro and Gabriel (2010). Real changes in understanding the leadership construct will be presented from the time of entering the doctoral journey until the present date.

The discussion will cover my personal reflection and purpose as interpreted in January of 2009 compared to today. My transformational leadership plan and addendum will be discussed developed in January 2009 and December 2009 respectively. My philosophy of knowledge is explored beginning in March 2009 until the present time. The paper concludes with a summary of personal growth as a scholar, practitioner, and leader that led to my personal leadership plan.

Applications of leadership in context

Leadership and management styles can be seen from the context of Greek gods Zeus, Apollo, Athena, and Dionysus (Handy, 1995). I am Athena, more focused on task oriented leadership. Here is a brief insert, “Athena takes the approach of the continuous and successful solution of problems. First it defines the problem; then allocates to its solution the appropriate resources; gives the resulting group of men, machines, and money the go-ahead; and waits for the solution” (p. 21). The practices of my leadership style include being the cheerleader, coach, and mentor toward goal achievement. The people who have worked for me describe me as fair, equitable, focused, and caring. I see myself as inclusive, open to new ideas toward goal achievement, and consistent.

Personal reflection and purpose of leadership

Three years ago, at the beginning of the doctoral journey, I viewed leadership a role modeling process whereby superiors, peers, and subordinates glean best practices of how to lead others and get the job done. Leadership in essence was a behavior, a way of doing things, a way of being. Stephen Covey has a profound effect on my understanding of leadership. Effective habits of leaders (Covey, 1989) closet to my style are habits number two, to begin with the end in mind, habit number three, put first things first, and lastly habit number seven, sharpen the saw. He offers beginning with the end in mind which talks about setting long-term goals and a personal mission statement. Setting long-term goals involved taking on a deeper understanding and appreciation for learning. Setting long-term goals meant to go back and gain further education on a more scholarly level in an effort to gain more wisdom along with understanding the field of leadership.

Putting first things first, as offered by Covey, means to prioritize my short-term and long-term goals which will enable me to meet my mission statement. Covey highlights that some overlook the importance of setting short-term goals and prematurely set long-term goals missing the important step of short-term goals. Sharpening the saw refers to focusing on a balanced self-satisfaction. Self-satisfaction for me is to continue to grow in life learning from various sources of learning, more specifically academically as well as from personal encounters with others and self-reflection of who I am and how I want to be remembered when I leave this earth, essentially, beginning with the end in mind.

My purpose of leadership to be a critically reflexive practitioner.

Fast forward three years from September 2008 until present day, October 30, 2011. My purpose of leadership is to be an adaptable role model who leads in the now for a better tomorrow. I intend to exercise characteristics needed in future leaders such as portable leadership, boundary less work environment adaptability, multiple mission conscious, incorporating talent-driven job descriptions, and using targeted teams (Ramsey, 2010, pp. 7-8). Each of these characteristics has a commonality of fluidness. Fluidness being a leader who is not bound to one office and understands the need to be mobile reaching more people (portable leadership). Fluidness in leadership skills being able to perform in a boundary less work environment adapting to video conferencing, using global communications as a way to lead others. Most importantly, employing multiple mission styles of leading realizing that missions change from one stakeholder to another, all-encompassing overall goals of an organization.

Critical thinking is no longer a buzz word to criticize the leadership of others, as I understood it prior to my doctoral studies, but to engage in reflective thought processes (Cunliffe, 2004) questioning the intentions of the leader’s viewpoint. The leader I am today understands that the acceleration of globalization has created a chaotic state of change as businesses struggle to adapt to new paradigms of leadership (Robinson & Harvey, 2008). As a result of my learning this year, I am acutely aware of the change in business models that may need creation. Robinson and Harvey also noted the need for a more reflective business mode l that would incorporate more than the American way of doing business (Robinson & Harvey, 2008).

Philosophy of knowledge

The quest for human understanding to somehow know exactly what constitutes knowledge, the body of knowledge, proof that knowledge does exist, and the absolute that humans can obtain knowledge is the essence of the nature of knowledge, the metamorphosis, if you will, of knowledge. The early pioneers who took on this challenge of inquiry into not only human understanding, but attempts at communicating their findings of knowledge which lead to human understanding of philosophy began as early as modern civilizations. The word purpose translates to the end view.
What is the end view of knowledge? Why is knowledge important? Is knowledge important? Knowledge is the basis of understanding. Understanding is the foundation of reasoning. Reasoning is the essential difference between man and animal. The very nature of the human race is the ability to intellectualize stimuli in attempts to learn from it and move forward with the new reference material which can used to build upon, priori knowledge. The purpose of knowledge is evolution. Evolution is an unfolding, opening out, or working out; process of development, as from a simple to a complex form, or of gradual progressive change (Neufeldt & Guralnik, 1996, p. 472). My evolution as a leader has grown significantly towards incorporating scholarly knowledge in my leadership decisions.

For example, the jury is still out on what makes successful leadership. Perceptions have changed over time from a historical perspective it quickly becomes clear that leadership definitions are very much aligned to specific eras of human history (Charman, 2011, p. 39). For the most part, captive of their respective contexts, academics, thinkers, researchers and practitioners alike, have both defined the concept of leadership and judged the effectiveness of their leaders, through their respective world lenses (Charman, 2011, p. 39). Equipped with this insight, I can now move in the current philosophy that knowledge is necessary to serve as a backdrop for sound decision-making in my leadership applications. What am I saying? I am saying that leadership is the journey of a lifetime.

Growth as a scholar, practitioner, and leader

I can be the best scholar by critically analyzing my input to thought. I can step up my efforts to ensure that what I choose to select in reference material actually does represent a cross reference of other scholars. I can be the best practitioner by incorporating some of the leadership skills that I have learned along the way. For example, to learn how to ride a bike, and then not incorporate the learning, only does partial good. To actually perform the bike riding is the goal. Practical application of abstract theory is what learning is all about. To learn something and not apply the learning is wasteful, if given an opportunity.

I can be the best leader by demonstrating leadership qualities which promote effective goal achievement. Effective goal achievement means getting the job done while preserving the dignity of the people who do the work, no matter what level. Leadership moves people to want to perform. Leadership is a genuine concern for the welfare of all people in the organization. This includes, janitors, maids, office personnel, drivers, managers, CEO, everyone. Successful leaders, know what to do, whether this ‘knowing’ has to do with precise sensitivity to particular situations or with visionary insight (Petranker, 2010, p. 57).


“All fixed set patterns are incapable of adaptability or pliability. The truth is outside of all fixed patterns” – Bruce Lee.

New and emerging futures will demand thinking outside of the box styles of leadership. What worked yesterday may not be the most appropriate application of leadership for today. Twenty-first century society yearns for a leadership of possibility; a leadership based more on hope, aspiration, and innovation than on the replication of historical patterns of constrained pragmatism (Adler, 2006, p. 487). The review of my leadership journey has helped shape my future vision of leadership as one that is without constraints. The importance of seeking scholarly knowledge to help me lead cannot be understated. People want in their leaders has just three elements: charisma, character, and competence (Bateman, 2011, p. 70). The last characteristic of competence is the essence of leadership. Resting on the shoulders of researchers, becoming a critical reflexive leader, and employing ethical behavior in my leadership style are ways to build competence in leadership. Bruce Lee’s quote is quite relevant; the truth lies outside of fixed boundaries.

Adler, N. J. (2006). The arts and leadership: Now that we can do anything, what will we do? Academy of Management Learning & Education, 5(4), 486-499. doi: 10.5465/AMLE.2006.23473209
Bass, B. M. (1998). Transformational leadership: Industry, military, and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bateman, T. S. (2011). Beyond charisma: What followers really need from their leaders. T&D, 65(6), 70-72.
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Charman, A. (2011). The future of leadership – what will it take to succeed? International Schools Journal, 30(2), 39-48.
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Cunliffe, A. L. (2004). On becoming a critically reflexive practitioner. Journal of Management Education, 28(4), 407-426.
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Kelloway, E. K., Barling, J., Kelley, E., Comtois, J., & Gatien, B. (2003). Remote transformational leadership. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 24(3), 163-171.
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Robinson, D. A., & Harvey, M. (2008). Global leadership in a culturally diverse world. Management Decision, 46(3), 466-480.

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Bringing the voices of retired military women to life!

I am looking for a way to connect to women who have retired from the military. As some of you know, I am working on my second doctorate, this time in Psychology and I plan to interview retired military women on their leadership styles. Here is the problem, I can’t find many of us! 


My population has been silent in scholarly literature and I want to bring their voices to the academic landscape. I need your help finding us! Please shoot me an email for ways to contact women who have retired from the military. I want to chat with women from all services. 

Send the contacts to The research is scheduled to begin in January of next year so I am allowing myself a few months to reach out and set things up.

Thanks Word Press family, I know you are resourceful!

Many Blessings,

Dr. Scena

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